The New England Journal of Medicine recently reported that new cases of both type 1 and type 2 diabetes are on the rise in youth. Estimates indicate that in the United States, 29.1 million people live with diabetes. About 208,000 of those are younger than 20. While Type 2 diabetes has a strong correlation with excess weight, type 1 diabetes is an auto immune condition.
The study’s goal was to reveal trends in newly diagnosed cases of diabetes within various ethnic groups. Research revealed that from 2002 to 2012 the rate of new cases of type 1 diabetes in youth went up approximately 1.8 percent each year. During the same time period, the rate of new cases of type 2 diabetes went up quicker, at 4.8 percent.
Diabetes Rates Rise: Other Findings in the Report:
- Higher Type 1 Rates in Male Participants. Across all groups, the rate of new cases of type 1 diabetes increased more annually from 2003-2012 in males (2.2 percent) than in females (1.4 percent) ages 0-19.
- Hispanic Youth Showed Largest Increase of Type 1. Among ages 0-19, the rate of new cases of type 1 diabetes increased most in Hispanic youth, a 4.2 percent annual increase.
- Type 2 Rates Highest Amongst Native Americans. Among ages 10-19, the rate of new cases of type 2 diabetes rose most sharply in Native Americans (8.9 percent), Asian Americans/Pacific Islanders (8.5 percent) and non-Hispanic blacks (6.3 percent).
- White Youth Showed Smallest Type 2 Increase. The smallest upturn was seen in whites (0.6 percent).
- Higher Type 2 Rates in Female Participants. The rate of new cases of type 2 diabetes rose more sharply in females (6.2 percent) than in males (3.7 percent) ages 10-19.
Increased Health Care Burdens and Reduced Quality of Life
Living with diabetes from a young age sets up a longer lifetime of increased health care costs. It also creates potential for diabetes related complications. Efforts are underway by organizations like the Centers for Disease Control (CDC) to find ways to prevent or delay youth from developing Type 2 diabetes, which has become more common in recent years.
Since the cause of Type 1 diabetes is still unknown, more work is needed to find out possible disease triggers that leave the body unable to produce adequate insulin. This study’s insights into the varying rates of diabetes by ethnic group may lead to new research directions.
New England Journal of Medicine Incidence Trends of Type 1 and Type 2 Diabetes among Youths, 2002-2012
CDC National Diabetes Prevention Program
Exercise and Blood Sugar Control for Kids with Diabetes